AO, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 - trimmed European paper sizes as defined by the ISO 216 standard.
ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR - Software used for the creation of vector images producing .ai and .eps files.
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP - Software used for the manipulation of graphic and photographic images.
A.D.S - artwork delivery system - a software used for sending digital advertisements, designed to get around the problem of font copyrights.
ALIGNMENT - horizontal position of type to place characters in line and/or regulation of typesetting to range lines of characters within a column boundary.
AMERICAN QUARTO - The USA equivelent of A4 sized paper measuring 11" x 8.5" (279x216mm)
AMPERSAND - type character used in place of 'and'.
ART PAPER - a paper coated with china clay and size to leave a very smooth surface. Finish can be matt or gloss.
ARTWORK - final copy/material (normally supplied mounted on board to avoid creasing) ready for scanning, or for plate making with any special colour separation instructions marked-up on an attached overlay. This is seldom used since the introduction of computer generated artwork files.
ASCENDER - the top part of a lower case letter that rises above the x-height e.g. upper stroke in "h'.
BO, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 and B6 - trimmed paper sizes as defined by the ISO 216 standard (larger than A sizes).
BANK - lightweight papers (under 60 gsm)
BLANKET - drum covered with rubber surface in an off-set litho press which transfers the ink from the plate to the paper.
BLEED - printed area outside of trim marks. The bleed ensures edge to edge ink coverage after trimming.
BLIND EMBOSSING - a design stamped/pressed into paper without ink creating a raised surface.
BOLD FACE - type thicker than normal type.
BOND - heavier papers often used for letterheads.
BRE - Business Reply Envelope.
BROMIDE - a photographic quality paper that is water proof, seldom used now due to digital copy.
BULK - the degree of thickness of paper.
BULLS EYE - printing defect caused by a foreign particle holding the paper away from the inked printing surface.
CAPS - capital letters.
CHOKE - small increase to inside edge, usually applied to a lighter colour enclosing a darker colour, to force an overlap. A form of trapping.
CI - Copy Instruction - a sheet of paper containing all the booking details that normally accompanies the material sent to the publication.
CMYK - short term for four colour process referring to Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black).
COLLATE - sort separate pages into correct sequence.
COLOUR SEPARATION - separation of copy or artwork into the four process colours.
CONCERTINA - alternating folds in a single sheet.
CONTINUOUS STATIONERY - generally used on computer printers, where each sheet is joined to the next.
COPY DATE - the date a publication requires the advertisement material to guarantee printing on time. This varies from the day before the insertion date on a national newspaper to 6 weeks prior on some magazines.
CROMALIN - an off-press proof (made direct from the film separations). See Matchprint.
CUTOUT - area/shape removed from within trim area. Image without a background.
CUTTER - used to cut pre-determined shapes in paper.
CYAN - one of the 4 process colours ("Blue").
DESCENDER - part of a lower case letter that falls below the base-line of the character e.g. lower stroke in 'q".
DOT GAIN - enlargement of half-tone dot during printing which needs to be allowed for in reproduction.
DPI - Dots Per Inch, Measure of resolution, i.e. how many separate dots a printing device can produce per linear inch.
DUO-TONE - two colour halftone produced from a single colour original to produce a subtly coloured image.
DYE-SUBLIMATION - a one-off printing process transferring process colour dyes instead of ink to achieve realistic colour portrayal. See Iris and Rainbow 3M.
EMBOSS - raised lettering or impression rising above the flat paper/material.
EPS - file format used for images and graphics - short for Encapsulated Postscript File.
EXTRA BOLD - extra thick character strokes.
FILM - copy supplied as separation film for plate-making.
FIT - refers to exact register of each colour used on film, proof or plate.
FOOLSCAP - paper measuring 13 by 8 inches.
FOUR COLOUR SET - 4 pieces of acetate film, one for each process colour, i.e. cyan, magenta, yellow and black.
FULL COLOUR - four colour process print using Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK).
GATEFOLD - page in magazine which folds out.
GLOSS ART - shiny art paper (as opposed to matt art).
GRAVURE - process where the printing areas are below the non-printing surface. The recesses are filled with ink and the surplus is cleaned off with a blade before the paper contacts the whole surface and lifts the ink from the recesses. Generally used for very large print runs.
GSM - short for "grams per square metre", defining the weight of paper.
GUTTER - the inner, binding margin of a book, or space between printed areas.
IMAGESETTER - high resolution output printer used for producing bromide, final film or even plates containing graphics, text and scanned images (e.g. Linotron).
INSERT (Loose/Bound-in/Tip-in, etc.) - a page, booklet, or other item inserted into a magazine which is not printed as part of it. Usually pre-printed, can be inserted either loose, bound into the spine, or stuck onto a page of the publication.
IRIS - manufacturer name for a colour proofing system which produces finished image straight from computer (i.e. without separation film). See Dye-Sublimation.
ITALICS - version of type font with sloping characters.
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group - A medium for compressing picture file sizes to reduce transmission time.
JUSTIFY - spacing words to a predetermined width.
KERNING - spacing letters of a word so that they are either closer together or further apart.
Key - one of the 4 process colours ("Black").
KEYLINE - used as a positioning guide for placement of an image or tint - and can be printed or deleted before printing.
LAID - a form of paper with marks through the paper, as opposed to wove which is smooth.
LEADING - spacing between lines of text, depth of which measured in points.
LITHO - lithography. A method of printing whereby the ink transferred from a chemically treated flat plate to paper Can be direct or off-set, sheet or web-fed.
LOWER CASE - small letters as opposed to capitals.
LPI - lines per inch (see DPI). Measurement of definition (halftone screen to be applied).
MAGENTA - one of the 4 process colours ("Red").
MATCHPRINT - an off-press proof (made direct from the film separations). See Cromalin.
MATT ART - dull finished paper (as opposed to gloss art).
MICRON - 1/millionth of a metre, 1/thousandth of a millimetre
MINDER - print machine operator.
MOIRE - undesired pattern on scanned image resulting from incorrect use of screen.
MONOCHROME - single colour.
NCR - "No Carbon Required". Paper impregnated with dye which transfers image to sheet below.
NEGATIVE - film with image in reverse.
ORIGINATION - all the processes involved in the reproduction (Repro) of all copy/material up to platemaking.
ORPHAN - single word on a line at end of a paragraph.
O/S/E - Outside Edge - position of space booked on the page.
OVERLAY - transparent sheet with captions or instruction covering artwork.
PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM (PMS) - colour matching system specifying ink mixes to achieve consistent colour
PORTABLE DIGITAL FILE (PDF) - a digital file that compresses, InDesign files, Quark files, pictures, etc. into smaller size files for digital transmission over both Mac and PC platforms.
PERFORATE (PERF) - make series of holes in order to ensure straight-line tear.
PICA - 1/6", 12 point, standard unit of print measure.
PLATE - printing plate carrying inked image.
POSITION GUIDE - marked-up copy of the artwork specifying where images need to be placed.
POSITIVE - film with image resembling original.
PRE-PRESS - film and plate-making operations.
PRESS - printing machine.
PROCESS COLOUR - 4 standard colours used in full colour print (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black).
PROGRESSIVES - proofs taken from each plate to demonstrate build up of colour in a print run.
PROOF - printed sheet for checking type and colours.
RAINBOW 3M - a proofing system. See Dye-Sublimation.
REAM - 500 sheets of paper.
REGISTER - exact position of overlaid film separations c printed colours to achieve sharp image.
REPRO-HOUSE - company specialising in production C plate-making and/or film for printers.
RESOLUTION - definition of image by number of dots. More dots per inch mean higher resolution.
RGB - Red, Green, Blue: These are "additive" colours (100~, of each produce white).
RIVER - white line/area appearing in consecutive lines of set type as result of letter-space alignment or gaps in text.
R/R E/D - Right Reading Emulsion Side Down - the image is black on the clear acetate and is legible (not the wrong way around like a mirror image) when the black emulsion is on the bottom.
SADDLE-STITCH - a form of binding a publication by stapling the spine.
SANS-SERIF - no cross-line finishes to letter strokes.
S.E.A - Self Extracting Archive. A digital file for sending graphics over both Mac and PC platforms. Compresses a number of files into one compressed file which saves on download time.SEAL - varnish to protect printed, coloured image.
SEPARATIONS (SEPS) - series of films (pos or neg.) corresponding to each colour to be used.
SERIF - cross-line finish to the strokes of a letter.
SHEET-FED - printer or press fed with single sheets of paper, rather than a roll of paper (see Web Offset).
SHEETWORK - to print each side of the sheet from a sepa-rate set of plates, as distinct from work and turn.
SMALLCAPS - small capital letters the size of lower case.
SPECIAL COLOUR - a printing ink colour mixed specially for a job rather than made out of the process colour set.
SPOT COLOUR - each single additional colour.
SPREAD - small increase to outside edge, usually applied to a lighter colour enclosed by a darker colour, to force an overlap. A form of trapping. Also: two facing pages in book or magazine.
STEPCUT - pages trimmed to different heights.
STET - proof readers instruction meaning "ignore the marked correction".
THROW-OUT - a page which folds out of a book or maga-zine to a larger size than the book trim.
TIFF - computer file format used for colour and mono images and graphics - short for Tagged Image File Format
TINT - percentage of a solid colour.
TINT LAYING - using films and screens to create a mechanical shading.
TIP-IN - a method of gluing or sticking on a burster or insert in a publication.
TRACKING - proportional spacing between letters.
TRAPPING - control of overlap where different colours touch or abut. See Choke and Spread.
TRANSPARENCY - positive (usually colour) photograph on transparent film for viewing with transmitted light
TRIM - the actual size of the finished page when cut
TRIM MARKS - cutting guides marked outside intended print area to establish the final size of the page.
TYPE AREA - this is the area of a page that is guaranteed to print. Another term meaning the same thing is 'live matter area'. It is the safe area that will mot be altered if the page is guillotined badly.
TYPESET - produced by typesetting process, not type-written or hand-written.
TYPOGRAPHY - defining the form of typeface and style and format of text
ULTRA VIOLET VARNISH (UV) - high gloss varnish dried by exposure to UV light.
VARNISH - to apply an oil, water or synthetic varnish to printed matter to enhance appearance. Can be applied to specific areas (spot).
VIGNETTE - a graduated tint.
WEB-OFFSET - reel-fed offset litho printing.
WET-PROOF - proof produced from final plates on intended paper showing exact colour reproduction.
WIDOW - a single word carried on from a paragraph which appears in the next column or on the next page.
WORK AND TURN/WORK AND TUMBLE - printing on both sides of a sheet from a single set of plates.
WOVE - paper with smoother, more uniform finish than laid paper.
X-HEIGHT - the main body of a lower-case character without ascenders or descenders.
YELLOW - one of the 4 process colours..
Abbreviation element - Used in HTML alongside the title attribute to denote the use of an abbreviation. It allows screen readers to spot abbreviations and, instead of trying to pronounce the abbreviation, it reads out the full title.
Above the fold - The part of the web page that is visible on-screen before the user scrolls down.
The term was originally used with reference to newspapers, where the newspaper would be folded and placed on a news stand. The visible part of the paper (above the fold) is what sells the paper. In web design, the part of the site that is above the fold has the same function. There must be enough content of interest above the fold to make the user want to dig deeper.
accessibility - Refers to the structuring of web content in such a way that it is easily accessible to all users, in particular users with disabilities.
ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technology for transmitting digital information at a high bandwidth on existing phone lines to homes and businesses.
ADSL filter - A small box that plugs in to your telephone line to stop broadband and telephone signals from getting mixed up, or interfering with each other.
Adware - A form of spyware which installs programs which generate advertising on your computer (often in the form of pop-up windows).
Android - An operating system developed by Google for mobile phones and other hand-held devices.
Animated GIF - Short for 'Graphics Interchange Format', a GIF is a type of image file. When it is animated it might blink, flash or have moving elements.
Animation - Pictures which are combined in a certain way so they appear to move. Cartoons are animations.
alt attribute - An alt attribute is used to specify alternate text for an image. Specified inside the IMG tag in HTML, the alt attribute contains the alternate text that is displayed inside the image placeholder while the page is loading. In some browsers the mouseover tooltip will also display the text from the alt attribute (alt text). Alt text plays a role in SEO.
Anti-aliasing - Anti-aliasing is a feature of many design programs such as PhotoShop and Corel Photopaint. This feature creates a smoothing effect on the color edges of an image, providing a smooth transition from one color area within the image to the next color area in the same image. Without anti-aliasing the individual pixels would be more visible on the edges of the color areas.
Anti-spyware - Anti-spyware software helps stop malicious programs stealing confidential information from your computer.
Anti-virus - Security software that helps protect your computer from viruses spread online.
Apache - The Apache HTTP server is free software. It is an open source Web server. It is compatible with Unix systems as well as Microsoft Windows and Novell NetWare to name but a few.
API - Application Program Interface, is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. The API specifies how software components should interact and are used when programming graphical user interface (GUI) components.
Apple - A company set up by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in 1976, which makes computers (Macs), iPods, iPhones, Apple Watch, software (such as iTunes) and more.
Apple Macintosh - A series of computers made by Apple. The first Macintosh was released in 1984.
Application - Another word for a computer program. For example, Microsoft Word is a word processing application.
Applet - An applet is a (small) Java program. Applet software is inseparable from the context of another program, such as the Web browser, for example. It is dependent on other software and therefore offers a very narrow function. It has no independent use.
Application server - An application server is installed as a software engine in a computer network. One of its functions is to host software applications. Neither the file server nor the print server has such a function. Another function of the application server is to transmit applications to linked computers. It further manages most of the applications for business logic as well as the data access applications of your computer.
Array - an array is an index of data values. In PHP, for example, an array contains a number of variables.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - ASCII is a standard for code numbers. The standard is applied world-wide by computer programmers. ASCII is a computer code that represents letters as numbers. For example, the letter A is ASCII code 65.
ASP (Active Server Pages) - is a Windows-based server-side scripting language used for creating dynamic content.
Attachment - A file which has been attached (sent with) an email. This could be an image, a video or any other document. You can usually attach a file to an email by clicking an icon in the shape of a paperclip.
Attribute - In the context of HTML, an attribute is a characteristic of a tag. An IMG tag, for example, could include attributes that specify the height and width of the image.
Avatar - A picture or cartoon of yourself or a favourite character that you use to represent yourself in games, on message boards or on social networking websites.
AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved) - A common video file format (.avi). Video quality can be good at smaller resolutions, but files tend to be large.
B2B - Business to business. A site that focuses on selling to other businesses, not to end users.
B2C - Business to customer. A b2c business focuses on selling directly to the customer or end user.
Backbone - A network backbone is a high-speed line or a series of connections
Backend - The backend of a web site refers to the HTML markup, code, files and server processes that make the web site work. The backend is what the web designer builds, the frontend is what the web site visitor sees.
Backlink - A link from someone else's web site to yours. The number and quality of the backlinks you have pointing to your site has a significant impact on your search engine rankings. Many web developers offer a link building service where backlinks are obtained on the client's behalf.
Back up - To save files to a CD or USB drive so that they are kept in more than one place.
Bait-and-switch - A black hat Internet marketing technique. The idea is to have two versions of a web page. One is optimised for search engines, the other for users. Once the search engine indexes the first (takes the bait), the webmaster switches the pages so that the page optimised for users now lives at the URL of the page the search engine indexed. It's worth noting that search engines today are much smarter than they were back when this trick worked.
Bandwidth - The maximum amount of data that a connection can transfer.
Banner - A rectangular shaped advert or heading normally at the top of a web page. On the WebWise website, this includes our logo, tagline and the illustrations directly to the right of these.
Banner blindness - Referring to the practice/habit of ignoring banner advertisements. The term implies that people often do not see banner ads, regardless of how loud they are, because they habitually focus on text content.
Bcc - Blind Carbon Copy. The Bcc box allows you to send an e-mail to more than one person but their e-mail addresses are hidden from other recipients.
Beta / beta test - A beta test is a phase in software and web development. It usually comes after in-house testing and right before the launch. A beta test gives the developer an opportunity to gather error data and user feedback for final tweaks before the launch.
Bit (Binary DigIT) - A bit is the smallest unit of computerised data, comprised of either a 0 (off) or a 1 (on). Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.
Bitmap - A format used to save images. The file contains a colour value for each pixel in a picture. Bitmap files tend to be very large, and it is often better to save images as GIFs or JPGs.
BitTorrent - A relatively fast method of transferring files across the internet by connecting to multiple computers all sharing the same file (which has been broken down into lots of smaller parts).
Bps (Bits per second or Bitrate) - A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move data at 28,800 bits per second.
Black hat - A collective name for those SEO techniques that attempt to deceive search engines into ranking a page higher than it really deserves.
Bluetooth - A wireless network which can be used to transfer data (like photos and videos) between mobile phones over very short distances.
Bookmark - A pointer to a Web site of interest. Within browsers, pages can be "bookmarked" for quick reference, rather than remembering and typing the complete URL in the address bar.
Blog - Short for web log, a blog is a web page that functions almost like a diary or journal, with frequent updates. Blogs typically deal with a specific topic and are often used as a marketing or customer service tool alongside the main company web site.
Boolean operators - Language you can use to refine search results - so, 'cats AND dogs' will bring up links to pages referring to both of these animals, but 'cats NOT dogs' will bring up pages about cats which don't mention dogs.
Breadcrumbs - In web design the term refers to a navigational element showing the path within the site from the homepage to the current page. For example: Home > Services > Web Design > Order Page.
Broken link - A link that points to a page or resource that does not exist. A broken link produces a "404" error (not found).
Browser - A browser is software used to access web pages. Examples include Firefox, Chrome, Opera and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Bug - A bug, in web design terms, is an error or a problem where the site does not behave as it should. For example if a form validation script incorrectly identifies completed fields as blank fields.
Byte - A set of bits that represent a single character. There are usually 8 bits in a byte.
Cable - A wire insulated with plastic that is used to transfer electricity or information. Also a type of television service that is transmitted via a physical cable into your television.
Cache - A section of memory or the Hard Drive where data can be stored for rapid or frequent access.
CAPTCHA - A CAPTCHA is field in a web form, designed to differentiate between users and bots. Typically a CAPTCHA consist of an image containing letters that are difficult to read. The user must then enter those letters into a text box on the form. The goal is to reduce form spam by making the letters unreadable to bots, but readable to humans.
Case-sensitive - Case-sensitive systems differentiate between uppercase and lowercase. "ABC" and "abc" are not the same thing on a case sensitive system.
CGI - (Common Gateway Interface) programs/scripts run on the server and are usually designed to add functionality to a web site. Also, CGI stands for 'computer-generated imagery' and relates to the creation of any special effects for film, TV or games, using computers rather than video cameras.
cgi-bin - The most common directory to store CGI programs on a web server. The "bin" part of "cgi-bin" is an abbreviation of "binary", dating back to when programs were referred to as "binaries".
Cloaking - a technique where the web site serves different content to different users, based on their IP. While there are legitimate uses for cloaking (such as delivering different content for users from different countries), the technique is not recommended.
Cloud computing - Where the data is stored and accessed by the internet ('clouds') instead of on your computer: this can include online storage and online applications.
Cloud-based storage - When data you upload online is kept not on single servers but across lots of different ones at the same time. This means if one of the servers breaks, less data is lost as a whole.
Comments - In relation to web development, the term "comments" usually refers to comments entered into the code of the site to make the code more human-friendly.
Compression - Data files available for upload and download are often compressed in order to save space and reduce transfer times. Typical file extensions for compressed files include .zip (DOS/Windows) and .tar (UNIX).
Content - The content of a web site refers to all the text, images, sound etc. that make up the web site, but not the layout elements such as the background or navigation links.
Content management system (CMS) - offers a way for a user to edit the content of a web site from within a browser-based interface, without any HTML skills required. This is a feature often built into a web site by the developer, allowing the web site owner to add, remove or change the content themselves.
Conversion rate - refers to the percentage of web site visitors that take the intended action such as signing up for a newsletter or making a purchase.
Cookie - a small text file that a web site saves on a user's computer. The cookie stores information about that user. On the user's next visit to the same web site, the web site retrieves the cookie to access the information. Cookies are useful for saving bits of information like user preferences.
CPU - Stands for 'central processing unit', this is the 'brain' of the computer. When people talk about the speed of a computer they are talking about the speed of the CPU.
Crash - When your computer temporarily stops working. It may pause or 'freeze' up, or tell you to restart or quit.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) - is a style sheet language that determines the look of elements on web pages. The main benefit of CSS is that it splits the content from the presentation. Site-wide style changes can be performed by editing the style sheet rather than every page individually.
Cursor - The flashing vertical line on the screen that shows you where you are and where the next character you type will appear.
Cut and paste - Taking information from one place and putting it in another.
Cyberspace - A term often used to describe the internet/online environment, but which was originally invented to describe an as yet non-existent wholly interactive virtual world.
DAB - Digital Audio Broadcasting - a digital system for transmitting radio signals. A special digital radio is required to listen to DAB radio stations.
Database - A database is a collection of data, organised into tables and records. In web design. Databases are typically used to store information like user account information, product information etc.
Dedicated server - A dedicated server is a web server that is used to host one web site only.
Deep linking - Linking to directly to pages within a site, other than the homepage.
Defrag/defragment - Every time you use your computer the data is stored on your hard drive is random places, meaning that it can become 'fragmented'. Defragmenting your computer 'filters' everything, putting all these bits of data back into one section so that your computer can run much more effectively.
Depricated - Depricated tags, elements or attributes are ones that have become obsolete or they have been replaced by newer versions.
Desktop - Used to describe the way different programs are laid out on your screen, which is similar to how you might lay out documents on a real desk.
Dithering - Used in computer graphics, it is a method of creating new colours from ones that already exist in the image by interspersing pixels.
DNS (Domain Name Server) - A computer running a program that converts domain names into IP addresses and vice versa. Domain Name Servers (also known as Name Servers) are the backbone of the Internet.
Domain - A domain name is a name by which a web site or web server is identified, for example webdesigndictionary.com. Domains can include letters, numbers and hyphens only.
Domain extension - The last bit of the domain name, for example ".com", ".net" or ".org". There are hundreds of different domain extensions, including country-specific domain extensions such as ".co.uk" for the UK, ".com.au" for Australia etc.
Domaining - Describes the activities related to trading in domain names. Domaining has become an occupation, with many entrepreneurs buying and selling domains full-time.
Dongle - A small plug-in device (often like a USB stick) that you can add to your computer to do a set function.
Download - The process of transferring data from a remote computer to a local computer. When you copy a file from a computer on the Internet to your computer, you are "downloading" that file.
DPI - Dots per inch: often used in relation to digital cameras and images, DPI refers to the amount of detail contained in an image. A high DPI image will contain lots of detail.
Dreamweaver - Adobe Dreamweaver (formerly Macromedia Dreamweaver) is a website design/development program.
Dynamic web site - A web site that writes to and/or reads from a database and/or a web site where the content changes based on user inputs.
Email - A way of sending messages via the Internet (usually in the form of text, with other files in attachments) electronically, from one person to another.
Emoticon - A combination of characters used in text messages which, when viewed from a certain angle, resembles a facial expression. For example, :) is a 'smiley face' and :( represents an unhappy face.
Encrypt/Encryption - To change/scramble information so that it can't be read by anyone who doesn't know the password/key to unscramble it. This makes the information more secure.
Ethernet - The common method of networking computers in a LAN, or Local Area Network. An Ethernet connection will handle about 10,000,000 bits per second.
EXE - A file type which denotes an executable file which when clicked will launch a computer program. You should only open an EXE file if you are absolutely sure you know what it is and trust the source you got it from, as this type of file can affect the way your computer works.
Executable (program) - A computer program which is able to perform tasks when asked to do so. All software which runs off your computer hard drive will contain an EXE file.
Extranet - A private network or intranet which can be viewed by people through the internet
FACEBOOK - A social network originally created for college students to share information, which is now a place where people can have their own page on the internet, play games and talk to their friends.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) - An FAQ is a document that lists and answers the most common questions on a particular subject. It is considered good netiquette (the Internet's code of conduct) to check for FAQs and read them.
FILE EXTENSION - The bit of text at the end of a file which tells your computer which software program should open it. For example, a file ending with '.jpg' is an image.
Firewall - A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or more parts for security purposes. A firewall is commonly used to separate a network from the Internet.
Flame - Originally, to "flame" meant to debate in a passionate manner, often involving the use of flowery language. More recently, flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory or inflammatory comment, no matter how witless or crude.
Flame War - When an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debaters, rather than a discussion of their positions, it is referred to as a flame war.
Flash - Made by Adobe, Flash is used to create and play interactive videos, games and other multimedia items on the internet. You may need to install a plug-in to view Adobe Flash content on your browser.
Font - A specific typeface which sets out how text looks on the page, for example, Arial is a popular typeface, and Arial Narrow is a specific font.
Forum - Also known as a message board - a place where people can leave messages for others to read, and hold conversations about common interests online.
FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) - The official name assigned to an individual computer. Organizations register names, such as "example.com", then assign unique names to their computers, such as "mail.example.com".
Freeware - Software that is available for download and unlimited use without charge.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - A common method of moving files between two Internet sites. Most FTP sites require a login name and password before files can be retrieved or sent.
Gantt chart - Used in web project management, a gantt chart specifies objectives/milestones and assigns target dates to those objectives.
GB - Gigabytes: a measure of computer memory. A gigabyte is 1,000,000,000 byteS
Geek-speak The unique terminology that geeks tend to use and that non-geeks have a hard time understanding. This dictionary attempts to make some geek-speak understandable to non-geeks by offering definitions of geek terms.
Ghost site - A web site that remains available online, but that is no longer being maintained or updated. Unlike an abandoned site, a ghost site usually includes a paragraph stating that it is no longer being updated and it is kept alive because the information it contains may still be valid and useful.
GIF - GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a popular image format for the web. The GIF format is limited to 256 colors and supports transparency, which makes it suitable for simple graphics such as logos or buttons, but not for complex graphics such as photos.
Google - A company known for providing a popular search engine, as well as a free webmail service and many other web applications.
Graphics - In the context of web design, graphics is a collective name for all the images associated with a web site.
GRAPHICS CARD - A piece of hardware inside your computer which helps it to display high-quality images such as those used in games and videos.
Guestbook - A page on a web site where visitors can enter their names and leave their comments about the site. Guestbooks worked great until automated guestbook spam made them more of a liability than an asset. Today few company web sites still offer a guestbook. The ones that do usually have effective anti-spam measures in place.
GUI - GUI is short for graphical user interface. It's that part of an application (or web site) that's intended for the user. Also called the "front end".
HACKER - Someone who attempts to access secure information over the internet without permission - or someone who likes to customise or recycle computer equipment to invent new things.
HARDDRIVE - A magnetic hardware device which stores data on a rotating disk. This way of storing information has been used since 1956.
HARDWARE - The physical parts of your computer.
HD (High Definition) - Graphics displayed on screen to a very high quality.
HITS - The amount of times a web page has been visited by different people on the internet. Most websites keep a record of who has visited their website so that they can see how popular it is.
HOMEPAGE - The web page your browser automatically displays when you start it up. Most browsers will allow you to change your homepage. Also the first page you are directed to when visiting a website.
HTML - HyperText Markup Language: a universal type of computer code used for making websites and controlling how they are displayed, invented by Tim Berners-Lee.
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol: the letters at the start of a web address, which give a command to your computer to request information from the website you want to look at.
HTTPS - As above. But the 'S' means that your connection to the website is secure.
HYPERLINK - Text, which when clicked, takes you to another web page. Hyperlinks (known mostly as 'links' will often appear underlined either all of the time or when you move the mouse over them.
HYPERTEXT - Text which is arranged in a non-linear fashion and which you continue reading by clicking on links.
ICON - A small linked picture which represents an action. E.g. The icons on your desktop represent what will happen if you click on them - so a text document might be represented as a piece of paper with words on it, or an image might be represented by an icon showing a photo frame.
IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol: a method used for transferring emails from one place on the internet to another. Another way of doing this is known as POP, and also SMTP.
INTERNET - Millions of computers (and the data stored on them) around the world connected together by telephone lines, cables or satellites over which they can exchange information.
INTRANET - A private network within an organisation where people can share information without it being accessed by the rest of the internet.
IP/IP ADDRESS - Internet Protocol: The numerical address that every computer on the internet has. So, for example, the IP address of one of the BBC's computers is 184.108.40.206.
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network: a special digital phone line that offered internet connections of up to 128kpbs. ISDN has been replaced by broadband technology.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) - A company which provides access to an internet connection.
JPG/JPEG - A file extension which denotes that the file is an image. This format is most often used for photographs.
JUNK MAIL - Unsolicited or unwanted ema
kBps - A measure of how fast information is downloaded to your computer via a modem. kBps means a transfer rate of one kilobyte per second.
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS - A way of quickly performing an action by pressing a combination of keys on your keyboard at the same time. For example on many software programs pressing 'Ctrl' and 'P' at the same time will print what you're looking at.
KILOBYTE (KB) - A measure of computer memory: represents 1,024 bytes.
LAN - Local Area Network: a small private network of computers, for example in an office.
Link - A piece of text, image or other item on a website which, when clicked on, takes you to a different web page.
Linux - A type of free, open-source operating system made by the people who use it. It is most frequently used on servers and as an alternative to Microsoft Windows.
Lossless - A way of compressing files to make them smaller without losing any of the data or fine detail when they are reconstructed.
Lossy - A way of compressing files to smaller sizes that will mean that some data or fine detail will be lost when they are reconstructed.
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